• Lack of research and other facilities,including support staff; inadequacy of research funds, lack of professional equipment and tools.
• Low and eroding wages and salaries.
• Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of
transport, housing, etc.
• Under-utilization of qualified personnel;
lack of satisfactory working conditions;
low prospect of professional development
• Substantial funds for research,advanced technology, modern facilities;availability of experienced support staff.
• Higher wages and income.
• Higher standard of living.
• Better working conditions;
Impacts of Brain Drain
Effects of Brain Drain
• Reduces the already low quantity of skilled manpower available in African countries and needed for their development.
• Reduces numbers of dynamic and innovative people, whether entrepreneurs or academics
• Increases dependence on foreign technical assistance
• Slows the transfer of technology and widens the gap between African and industrialized countries
• Contribution of new skills when migrants return
• Remittances from skilled migrants boosts household welfare
• Remittances support the balance of payments
Best estimates suggest that Africans working abroad send home some US$45 billion a year.
•develop and valorize Africa's human resources and create
job and career opportunities .
•Respect and consolidation of human rights and democracy,namely freedom of speech.
•establish necessary and positive political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the brain drain.
•the necessity of setting Meritocracyand transparency as the only criteria in promotions and appointments.
Racism remains one of the most disgusting things in the history of humanity. It has caused tremendous harm in our past and still can destroy our future human relationships. In order to cure racism, or at least minimize its affects on humanity, we have to examine the root causes. So, what are the possible causes of racism? Why are some people racist? Where does racism come from? A comprehensive and plausible answer to these questions may enable us understand this negative phenomenon and therefore uproot its motives.
one of the most common causes of racism is stereotypes. We nurture stereotypes when we are unable or unwilling to get all of the information we would need to make fair judgments about people or situations. Stereotypes can evolve out of prejudice based on ignorance, fear, and misunderstanding about minority groups and other groups who are different from us. Television, books, comic strips, and movies are all abundant sources of stereotyped characters. In Morocco,for instance, the so called TV humorists ,in the absence of good quality artistic works, just target residents of the countryside “3roubiya” portraying them as unintelligent, uncivilized and credulous in front of large audiences that ,however, do not raise any objections; they burst into laughter instead. In the same way, women are most of the times associated with the impure, the sin and sex.
Another very common, and probably the most common cause of racism is unfamiliarity. People fear what they do not know or understand. If someone hasn't grown up around a particular race before, then there is more of a chance the person can be racist toward that particular group. Not all the time, but when the person has already been fed negative stereotypes, and does not have the actual real life experiences with at least one within the particular group, then the chances of racism are increased. This is why it is important for children to be around other races at a young age: to ensure they get their minds used and adapted to being around them, and also to help counterbalance any false stereotypes they may encounter in the future.
Selfishness is another obvious cause of racism. Humans are sometimes very selfish creatures caring only about their own at the expense of others. If individuals aren't taught how to respect others, then the potential for the person to become racist is increased as well. This is why you will find that most caring individuals aren't racist. Neither are they sexist or anything else.
Scapegoating is the practice of blaming an individual or group for a real or perceived failure of others. The origin of the term comes from the Bible. The high priest in Biblical times would place his hand upon a goat's head and transfer the sins of the community to the goat, which was then released into the desert.
It is not uncommon to blame others for our own mistakes, and especially to affix blame on those who are unable or unwilling to defend themselves against the charges. Minorities are often the targets of scapegoating. First, minorities are often isolated within society and are thus an easy target. Those in the majority are more easily convinced about the negative characteristics of a minority with which they have no direct contact. Violence, persecution, and genocide directed against minorities often occur when a minority group is being blamed for some social ill. Unemployment, inflation, food shortages, the plague, and crime in the streets are all examples of ills which have been blamed on minority groups.
Conclusion: Positive Responses to Prejudice and Stereotypes
Understanding the nature and being aware of the devastating effects of racism is the first step towards combating it. Moreover, we must not pander to the racist discourses that just foster prejudice, bigotry and fanaticism.